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eagle  Haliaeetus leucocephalus; the American bald eagle, fairly common today along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers, and common in the early days at Chicago; patrols the banks of large water courses in search of food, and likely scouted along the coast of Lake Michigan prior to an enlarged human settlement. The 2006 fall issue of the journal “Chicago Wilderness” reports that a pair of eagles has been nesting along the Little Calumet River for the past three years. [64]

Eagle Exchange Tavern  opened in 1829 on the east bank of the south branch, in the middle of Lake Street; Mark Beaubien had bought the log cabin in 1826 or 1827 from James Kinzie, but in 1830 when the streets were laid out, he had to move the building slightly south onto the SE corner of Market Street [North Wacker] and Lake, onto lots three and four of block 31 which he then bought; in 1831, a two-story large frame house was added and the establishment became the Sauganash Tavern. Emily Beaubien recalled that her father Mark originally sold Indian goods in a little log store, bought the cabin, and later "... made that part of the Eagle Exchange and there he kept a billiard place and in those days everything had a bar." [12] [357]

Eagle Hotel    managed early in January 1834 by Ashbel Steele and was probably located on Lake Street; kept by P.I. Carli later that year; on Oct. 7, 1835, the town board of trustees met at "Trowbridge's Eagle Hotel" [Andreas], implying that S.G. Trowbridge was then the owner.

Eals  nickname for residents from New York, common in early Illinois. [55a]

Eaman, Jacob  one of 36 "Citizens of Chicago" who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

Early Chicago
  the abbreviated title, as used on the dust cover and in popular language, of the book A Compendium of the Early History of Chicago to the Year 1835, when the Indians left. The book was self-published in the year 2000 by authors Ulrich Danckers and Jane Meredith, with the help of the contributing editor John F. Swenson.  web site name of the enlarged and continually updated second edition of the book A Compendium of the Early History of Chicago to the Year 1835, when the Indians left. Names and information about major contributors, other than the authors but including the editor, can be found as entries in the Encyclopedia section; see: Marshall, James A.; Masthay, Carl; McCafferty, Michael; Scharf, Alfred Frederick; Schlickan, Donald W.; Swenson, John F.; Gornik, Alan; and Vierling, Philip E.; ... [others in preparation].

earthquake  a series of what are usually referred to as the New Madrid Earthquakes occurred in Chicago during 1811-1812; John Kinzie recorded one such tremor in his account book for Dec. 16, 1811. Rufus Blanchard later gathered details: "... a violent earthquake was felt throughout the entire country. It took place in December, and continued several days in a succession of violent shocks of the ground, lashing the forests trees against each other with fearful violence. At times, through opening fissures in the ground, steam hissed out like the escapement of pent up and heated vapors, during which phenomenon loud reports, like the muffled sounds of thunder, continued to peal forth as if from an invisible source. It was felt the severest at New Madrid, on the Mississippi, where a large area of land sunk into the bowels of the earth, and, to fill the chasm, the Mississippi from below flowed backwards for some hours." [404] [58]

earthworks  of the [see] Hopewell. [12] [357]

eastern woodlands  a vast, almost uninterrupted mixed broadleaf and conifer forest that extended from the Atlantic seaboard to the tip of Lake Michigan prior to the arrival of Europeans on this continent. A map prepared by the historian Alfred Mayer in the 1850s dramatically reveals that the Chicago/Calumet area was the structured interface between the Grand Prairie to the west and the eastern woodlands; near La Porte, IN, the prairies were still partly delineated by forest and had names: Door, Twenty Mile, Morgan, and Robinson; but upon entering Illinois, within a span of 40 miles, the prairies were the dominant landscape feature and the groves (small forests surrounded by prairie) were named. Tree types in the woodlands included oak, elm, linden, beech, maple, birch, aspen, poplar, pine, and juniper. Swamp lands within the woods, as found along the Sag, near Stony Island, and around the mouth of the Grand Calumet at Miller, IN, included tamarack, alder, pine, black ash, aspen, maple, willow, and buttonwood. Also see prairie.

Eastman, Lt. Jonathan  from Vermont; enlisted in the U.S. Army and appointed ensign, First Infantry, on July 18, 1803; became second lieutenant artillery, March 1805; district paymaster, 1806; first lieutenant, June 1807; advanced to first lieutenant artillery on Mar. 12, 1812, and in June that year he visited Fort Dearborn as paymaster with the last payment for the company`s service: nine months`s pay through June, prior to the massacre; he was honorably discharged in May, 1814. [708] [326]

Eastman, Seth   see Schoolcraft, Henry R.

Eaton, Delila R.  see Fuller, Reuben.

Eaton, Sergeant  this officer from Fort Dearborn visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 24 and July 4, 1804, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

Ebereden, Samuel  was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Eberhardt, A.  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1833. [342]

Ebert, Lizard  with his wife Evangeline (née Reed), witnessed the baptism of their son Henri by Father Badin in Chicago on Oct. 18, 1830; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Ebinger, Christian  (1812-1879) born in Würtemberg, Germany; gardener, immigrated in 1831 with his brothers John (married to Elizabeth Planck) and Frederick, his sister Elizabeth, and his brother-in-law [see] John Planck; spent one year in Detroit where he married Barbara Rehly, then came with his bride to Chicago in 1832; had seven children: Christian, Henry, Margaret, Sarah, Eliza, Caroline, and William; in the spring of 1834 he moved to Dutchman`s Point [in what is now Niles, IL] to farm, and there built a log house, in which his widow still lived in 1884; became a preacher with the German Evangelical Association. Christian Ebinger, Sr. School, 7350 W Pratt Ave. [13, 278] [342]

Ebinger, Elizabeth  see Planck, John.

Ebinger, Frederick  brother of Christian and John; moved to Niles Township [formerly Dutchman`s Grove] in 1834 with his wife [name not recorded], coming from Fort Dearborn, where both had worked during the summer. [13]

Ebinger, Heinrich  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1834. [342]

Ebinger, John  settled in Dutchman’s Grove [now within the limits of Niles Township] in 1834, and built a log cabin on Section 31, adjacent to and immediately S of his brother Christian Ebinger, who settled there in the same year. [13]

Edson, Nathan  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Apr. 6, 1810, but visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 24, 1805, on Feb. 21 and 26, 1807, on July 15, 1812, and twice more before the Fort Dearborn massacre on Aug. 15, 1812, as shown in the Kinzie account books; served as waiter to Factor Matthew Irwin until late June 1812; he survived the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and was ransomed from the Indians after nearly two years of captivity. [226, 404, 708]

Edward Sacket  
schooner; called at Chicago from New York State ports with passengers, merchandise and lumber three times during 1834, twice under Captain Forsyth, and on Oct. 12 under Captain Dibble.

Edwards & Bosworth    see Edwards, Alfred; also see Bosworth, Increase.

Edwards County, Illinois Territory  was established on Nov. 28, 1814; named after Ninian Edwards, first governor of the Illinois Territory; Chicago was part of Edwards County from 1814 to Dec. 31, 1816, then became part of Crawford County, Illinois Territory. For details, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. [335a]

Edwards, Abraham H., M.D.  (1781-1860) native of Springfield, NY; became a physician in 1803 and practiced in Indiana and Ohio; joined the army medical corps at Detroit in 1812; was in Chicago as lieutenant colonel of the 7th Regiment, Michigan Territory Militia, under Maj. Gen. John R. Williams during the Black Hawk War, remaining from June 11 to June 22, 1832. [714]

Edwards, Abram  merchant at Detroit in 1818 with branches at Mackinac, Green Bay, Fort Gratiot, and Chicago; in May 1818, visited his Chicago branch and Fort Dearborn, then under the command of Major Baker [Edwards` 1855 letter, Wisconsin Historical Society Collections 5]. The nature and location of Edwards`s branch agency remain obscure as his report contains no description of the settlement; some historians believe that John Crafts worked for Edwards at his Hardscrabble outlet, rather than for Conant & Mack. The five day trip led from Green Bay by way of Sturgeon Bay, portaging to the shore of Lake Michigan, then south along the shore in a birch bark canoe; at night the party camped onshore, never saw any white men, but many Indians, many of which were out in canoes spearfishing for whitefish.

Edwards, Alfred  first advertised with [see] Increase Bosworth as Edwards & Bosworth in the Oct. 28, 1835, Chicago Democrat; early on their agent was [see] J.H. Phelps; 1839 City Directory: grocery and provision store, North Water Street; in 1839 Bosworth is still listed as proprietor of their store, now on South Water Street. [243]

Edwards, Col. Thomas Aaron Hunt    in Chicago during the Black Hawk War and in command of a Cass County regiment of militia from Michigan; was temporarily in command of Fort Dearborn prior to the cholera outbreak and until Maj. William Whistler arrived; brother of Lt. Alexander H. Edwards.

Edwards, Julia C.  see Cook, Daniel H.P.

Edwards, Lt. Alexander H.  in Chicago during the Black Hawk War with a company of cavalry from Michigan; brother of Col. Thomas A.H. Edwards; earlier in 1816, had been a schoolmate of the Kinzie children at Detroit. [714]

Edwards, Ninian  (1775-1833) born in Montgomery County, Maryland; lawyer; first governor of the Illinois Territory, commissioned by President Madison; took office on April 24, 1809; was reappointed every two years and served throughout the entire period of its existence until Dec. 6, 1818. Governor Edwards was fully aware of the damage alcoholic drinks could do to the Indian population; see his May 24, 1812 proclamation below. He was president of the convention which drafted the state`s first constitution and served as governor of Illinois from Dec. 6, 1826, to Dec. 9, 1830. [230, 231]
WHEREAS, It is deemed improper to furnish the Indians with spirituous liquor at Peoria,
I do hereby forbid all persons, whatsoever, to sell, exchange, or in any manner give, or deliver, to any Indians or Indian any spirituous liquors, or any ardent spirits within twenty miles of Peoria. And I do hereby enjoin it upon Thomas Forsythe, and any other Justice of the Peace for Saint Clair county, to inforce this proclamation.
In testimony whereof I have caused the seal of the Territory to be hereunto affixed.
The following item appeared in the Illinois Herald on Oct. 1, 1815: Notice. – I Have for sale 22 slaves. Among them are several of both sexes, between the years of 10 and 17 years. If not shortly sold, I shall wish to hire them in Missouri Territory. I have also for sale a full-blooded stud-horse, a very large English bull, and several young ones. Ninian Edwards. [12]

Eels, Thomas S.  advertising "Fashionable Tailoring" in the Chicago Democrat on July 22, 1834; by Oct. 22, he was in partnership with another tailor named Andrew and located one door N of the Tremont House, advertising that they "flattered themselves to be inferior to none"; signed list for firefighting materials at a meeting at Trowbridge`s Eagle Hotel on Oct. 7, 1835, and was named to the Hook and Ladder Co. on Nov. 11; living in Jacksonville, FL, in 1885. [12]

Egan, William Bradshaw, M.D.  (1808-1860) also Eagan; born in Killarney, County Kerry, Ireland; graduated from Dublin Medical School; licensed to practice in New Jersey in 1830 and opened an office in Newark; married Emeline Mabbatt of New York City on Jan. 21, 1832, and in late summer of 1833, moved with his wife to Chicago; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. Following the completion of St. Mary`s Church in October, its successful balloon frame structure prompted Dr. Egan to organize the construction of like adjoining buildings for habitation, nicknamed "Egan`s Row." In the July 2, 1834, Chicago Democrat he offered "services in Medicine and Surgery in residence near the Maison-house"; also that year, helped organize St. James Episcopal Church, was a member of the Chicago Lyceum, became a member of the town`s health committee, representing the S division and also announced in the September 10 Chicago Democrat that he was a candidate for mayor; was a successful real estate investor during the land boom and a talented platform speaker, effectively presiding at public meetings; at the celebrated inauguration of construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, groundbreaking in Bridgeport on July 4, 1836, he was selected by common consent to give the public oration, which was a resounding success; also assisted Dr. Brainard in establishing Rush Medical School in 1837; 1839 City Directory: real estate dealer, boarded at City Hotel; 1844 City Directory: physician, [city] recorder, c Clark and Rand st. res Clark [card: Can be consulted in private cases at his Residence or Office, but cannot attend to out-door practice.]; later served as a state senator; was active in organizing the local Republican party; in 1853, he purchased the land holdings of Stephen Forbes on the Des Plaines River. Dr. Eagan and his wife had four children: two boys, two girls. He died in Chicago; in 1885, his widow lived at 624 Dearborn Avenue. [3a, 12, 13, 40, 218, 288a, 319, 351, 734]

  see Llewellyn.

Eldredge, John Woodworth, M.D.  (1808-1884) also Eldridge; native of New York State, graduated in 1834 at Fairfield Medical College, NY; arrived in 1834; became the chairman when the city`s board of health was organized in 1837; 1839 City Directory: Clark Street corner of South Water, Loomis` Building; in 1840 married Sophia E. Houghton of Vermont, and they had one daughter; 1844 City Directory: physician, res Randolph st. [card: first door West of City Hotel] east of Clark st; practiced for 34 years, remaining in Chicago until he died on Jan. 1, 1884; street name: formerly Eldredge Court, now 9th Street. [12, 13] [351]

Eldridge, Edward  [text in preparation]

Eldridge, Lydia A.  see Fuller, George; see Eldridge, Edward.

elections  local election for county and town offices prior to Chicago`s incorporation as a city were held on the following dates: 1823 Sept. 1 (Fulton County election for sheriff; Abner Eads won); 1826 Aug. 7 (Peoria County election; Ninian Edwards for governor, Daniel Cook for congressman; 35 votes were cast); 1827 (Peoria County election; no further record found); 1828 May 11 (Peoria County election for constable at Agency house; nine votes cast; David Hunter and Henley Clybourne elected); 1828 Aug. 4 (Peoria County election for member of Congress at Agency House, member of general assembly and county officers; 33 votes cast); 1828 Aug. 20 (Peoria County election at Agency House; 33 votes cast; Alexander Doyle defeated Archibald Clybourn for justice of the peace; David Hunter and Henley Clybourn reelected as constables); 1828 Nov. 3 (presidential election at J.B. Beaubien`s house; 40 votes cast; Andrew Jackson won); 1830 July 24 (Peoria County, Chicago precinct election for justice of the peace and for constable, at James Kinzie`s house; 56 votes cast; John S.C. Hogan defeated Archibald Clybourn for justice of the peace, Horacio Smith defeated Russell Rose for constable); 1830 Aug. 2 (for governor, held at James Kinzie`s house; 32 votes cast; elected: John Reynolds); 1830 Nov. 25 (Peoria County election for justice of the peace; 26 votes cast; Stephen Forbes defeated William See); 1831 March 8 (Cook County election for county commissioners; elected: Samuel Miller, Gholson Kercheval, and James Walker); 1832 August (Cook County election; 114 votes cast; Joseph Duncan of Jacksonville elected to Congress, James M. Strode of Galena for state senator, Benjamin Mill of Galena for state representative, Stephen Forbes for sheriff, Elijah Wentworth, Jr., for coroner) 1833 Aug. 10 (for village trustees; elected were: George W. Dole, Madore Beaubien, John Miller, E.S. Kimberly, and T.J.V. Owen - president); 1833 Dec. 9 (for constable); [Silas W. Sherman ran but apparently lost; made Cook County sheriff in 1834]; 1834 June 7 (for colonel of the Illinois militia; elected: John B. Beaubien); 1834 June 12 (for justice of the peace; elected: John Dean Caton); 1834 Aug. 4 (Cook County election; 528 votes cast; Gen. Joseph Duncan elected for governor, William M. May for congressman, James W. Stephenson of Jo Davies County for state senator, John Hamlin for state representative, and Silas W. Sherman for sheriff); 1834 Aug. 11 (for trustees; elected were: J. H. Kinzie - president; G.S. Hubbard, E. Goodrich, J.K. Boyer, J.S.C. Hogan); 1835 July (for trustees: elected were: H. Hugunin - president, W. Kimball, B. King, S. Jackson, E.B. Williams, F.C. Sherman, A. Loyd, and George W. Dole); 1835 Aug. 5 (elected for county recorder: R.J. Hamilton; elected for county surveyor: Addison Collins; elected for justice of the peace: Sidney Abell, Edward W. Casey, Isaac Harmon, and Edward H. Hunter; elected for constable: Oremus Morrison, Luther Nichols, and John Shrigley); 1836 June 6 (for trustees; elected were: E.B. Williams - president, S.G. Trowbridge, Peter Bolles, L.P. Updike, A.D. Taylor, William B. Ogden, A. Pierce, T.G. Wright, and J. Jackson). [12, 220]
For details, where held, and outcome of elections, see Chronology.

  23-ton schooner from Cleveland, OH; called at Chicago with passengers, lumber, and merchandise four times during 1834, twice under Captain Dibble, then under Captain Burton. [48]

Elizabeth Ward
  65-ton schooner from Oswego, NY, Lake St. Clair, and Detroit; called at Chicago with lumber and merchandise once in 1834 under Captain Ward, twice in 1835 under Captain Austin and twice under Captain Fearson; capsized on Lake Erie in 1845. [48]

elk  Cervus elaphus, Cervus canadensis; known to early settlers as cerf or stag. In 1673, Father Marquette`s party observed that elks were common along the Illinois River; in 1712, Father Marest reports that "the plains and prairies [on either side of the Illinois River] are all covered with buffaloes, roebucks, hinds [mature female deer or elk], stags ...." In the 1820s, elks had become uncommon in northern Illinois and by 1850 they had disappeared. [341]

Ellen, Peter  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Jan. 12, 1817, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

  possibly Eleanor; a sailing vessel under Captain [see] John Fearson; the ship visited Chicago on Aug. 23, 1809, and Fearson visited John Kinzie’s trading post as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Elliot, William  listed in 1830 as the owner of lot 5 in block 2, previously owned by James Kinzie [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Elliott, Sarah P.  see Campbell, Maj. James Blackstone.

Ellis Inn    see Ellis, Samuel.

Ellis, Joel  (May 25, 1818-Oct. 29, 1886) born in Fredonia, Chautauqua County, NY; son of Benjamin and Maria (née Burt, CT) Ellis and nephew of [see] Samuel Ellis; arrived in 1838 to help his uncle farm, soon learning the meat business; 1839 City Directory: butcher, Funk`s Fulton market, 95 Lake St.; joined [see] Archibald Clybourne`s enterprise, met and in 1844 married Susan, daughter of [see] James Galloway; they had three children: Lucretia (Mrs. George Pinney), Winfield, and Mary Josephine (Mrs. Algernon S. Osgood). Eventually in 1865 Ellis partnered Thomas Armour to create an extensive meats and provisions concern. Early in 1871 he retired to a residence on acreage in Jefferson Township [now part of Chicago]; in 1885, lived at 62 West Jackson Street; died at Jefferson the following year. [3, 12] [351]

Ellis, Lucy Ann  see Downer, Pierce.

Ellis, Maria Theresa  Kimberly, Dr. Edmund S.

Ellis, Samuel  born in Chautauqua County, NY; youngest son of Barzillai and Sarah (née Tobey) Ellis; arrived from Massachusetts by late 1831, signing the [see] Herrington Petition in December; known to have used his ox wagon to transport Philo Carpenter and George P. Snow on July 16, 1832, for the last stretch of their journey to the settlement; was a member of the Chicago company during the Black Hawk War; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November. In 1835, Ellis owned more than 136 acres of beachfront property on the S side adjacent to the lakeshore between 31st and 39th streets [in Sections 34 and 35, Township 39]; in 1838 his nephew [see] Joel Ellis, a farmer`s son, came to help work his uncle`s land; on 35th Street near Vincennes Avenue, ran a tavern called Ellis Inn; 1839 City Directory: milkman, south of 22nd Street, red barn on prairie; died in Chicago in 1856; street names: Ellis Avenue and Ellis Park (600 E). [3, 12, 243] [456]

Ells, Thomas S.    signed up with the "Pioneer" hook and ladder company in October 1835, a voluntary fire brigade.

Ellston, Harriet  see Brown, Thomas C.

Ellsworth, Lewis  a settler from New Hampshire whose house and grove were near the Napier trading post that was fortified as Fort Payne during the Black Hawk War; lived in Lisle and became a county judge in 1839.

Elskwatawa    Shawnee name of the Prophet; see Prophet, the.

Elston, Daniel  (c.1790-Sept. 13, 1855) from England; lived NW of the Forks on a diagonal wagon trail to Niles, which earlier had been an Indian trail from the Forks to Wisconsin; in 1830, he purchased a 160-acre section of land along the trail [see Woodstock Trail] that eventually became Elston Avenue [NE quarter of Section 6, Township 39 {Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113}]; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; in partnership that year with the [see] Woodruffs, Elston & Woodruff made soap and candles in a log barn on Kinzie Street at the junction of the North Branch with the river; advertising can be found in the first issue of the Chicago Democrat, on November 26, for the "Soap and Candle Manufactory of Messrs. Daniel Elston & Co. ... keeping constantly on hand an assortment of all descriptions of Hard and Soft SOAP, Wax and other Candles, to ensure public support. N.B. Cash paid for Tallow, ... also for good House Ashe," and in the Feb. 18, 1834, issue an ad appeared announcing "Smoke! Smoke!! Smoke House" offering a "Quantity of highly flavoured Hams, Fletches of Bacon, Mess and Prime Pork"; in the Nov. 4, 1835, Chicago Democrat advertised the Chicago Soap and Candle Manufactory of Messrs. Elston & Chaver [sic] "on the Point between North Branch and Main River"; late November both John T. Temple and Bernard Ward submitted depositions in support of his claim for wharfing privileges; on the 27th, Elston & Cleaver [see Charles Cleaver] applied and later claimed privileges at the junction of the north branch and main stream [lots 3, 4, block 7]; Daniel supported his earlier claim [lot 4, block 7] with an affidavit filed on Dec. 24; in 1836 he sold his interest in the company to Cleaver. He and his wife Blanche Maria (née Cull) had two children: Daniel Terry (1836-1907) and Blanche Sophie (1839-1907); became alderman in 1837; 1839 City Directory: brickmaker, Elston Road; in the 1843 and 1844 Directories he listed as: "patent press brick maker, res N. Branch Mile End"; street name: Elston Avenue, a diagonal street on the NW side; in 1885, his widow lived in Lake View. [12, 28, 319] [351]

Emerson, Benjamin  born in 1810 near Utica, NY; arrived in 1835 and began to sell milk; 1839 City Directory: milkman, Chicago Avenue near Lill`s brewery; married a Miss Kiley of Ireland in 1839 and later that year removed to a claim in Niles Township. [243]

En-do-ga  see Countryman, Maj. Frederick H.

  French term for an employee under a written contract [engagement] with an official license holder of the Indian fur trade on their difficult travel through the wilderness. Characterized by exceptional hardiness and love of the outdoor life, they were posted at winter hunting places of the various tribes with essential trade goods, and many eventually married Indian women; some initiated trade illegally and without a license, becoming [see] coureurs des bois. Also see voyageur, a term often used synonymously with engagé. [692j]

engagement  see engagé.

Engineers    see Corps of Engineers.

Engle, Lt. James  from New Jersey; Fifth Infantry; stationed as second lieutenant with his wife at Fort Dearborn from Oct. 3, 1828, to May 20, 1831, under Major Fowle; voted on July 24, 1830 (see Chronology); resigned his commission in 1834, dying soon after. [704]

English and Classical School for Boys  also English and Classical Academy; opened in December 1833 as a private school in the small building of the First Baptist Church on South Water Street, at Franklin. The teacher ("preceptor") and proprietor was Granville T. Sproat of Boston, who advertised the school in the December 1833 issues of the Chicago Democrat; in March 1834, he was joined by an assistant, Miss Sally L. Warren. In 1834, the school accepted community funds and thereby became public; the trustees included George W. Snow, Eli W. Williams, and Dexter Graves. Also see Sproat, Granville T.

Eno, André Henault  [or Hunault] a member of La Salle`s party who, together with Jean Filatreau, built and occupied a "fort" at "Chicagou" for several months during the winter of 1682-83, as indicated in a letter that La Salle wrote from the Chicago portage on June 4, 1683; such a structure would be the second semipermanent dwelling built by a European, the first being Father Marquette`s winter hut of 1674-75; however, the heading of La Salle`s letter said it was 30 leagues [72 miles] from Fort St. Louis, a distance far short of present Chicago.

Eperson, Thomas  advertised in the Feb. 18, 1834, Chicago Democrat the establishment of a livery stable at the Point [Wolf Point].

Episcopal congregation  the Episcopal church community was first organized in 1834 through the efforts of Dr. Maxwell, Dr. Egan, Giles Spring, Gurdon Hubbard, Margaret Helm, and John H. Kinzie and his wife Juliette; in October 1834, Rev. Palmer Dyer arrived and preached the first sermon on the 12th at the Presbyterian church, by the invitation of Rev. J. Porter. Reverend Dyer left within the week and on the following Sunday (Oct. 19), Rev. Isaac W. Hallam conducted the service and took charge of the parish; Mr. Kinzie soon furnished a building on the SE corner of State (then Wolcott) and Kinzie streets as a place of worship [in 1840, this building became known as "Tippecanoe Hall"]. The Female Sewing Society of St. James Parish held its first annual fair on June 18, 1835, and on the 20th the ladies included "A Card" in the Chicago American acknowledging gratitude to "Messrs. Bates & Montgomery for use of their auction room and their services." The St. James Church, a handsome edifice of brick, was constructed in 1836 on two lots at the corner of Cass [Wabash] and Illinois streets and opened on Easter Sunday, 1837; the building surpassed in comfort and appearance the frame structures that other denominations (Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist) had erected earlier, and was the only church in town with a tower and organ. The community drew its membership chiefly from the well-to-do residential section of the N division; because John H. Kinzie was a member and a generous contributor, it was often referred to as the "Kinzie Church."

Ericson, Leif  see Leif Ericson.

Erie Canal  between the Hudson River and Lake Erie; America`s first major man-made waterway; begun by New York State in 1817 and opened on Oct. 25, 1825, establishing a new route for trade with and immigration from the settled East, beginning the modern era for the Great Lakes. The canal was 363 miles long and had 83 locks, extending from the Hudson River N of Albany across the Mohawk Valley to Buffalo, NY, on Lake Erie; signaled the beginning of the "canal era" in northern Indiana, and the canal fever that fanned Chicago`s real estate boom of the mid-1830s. Traveling in a boat of one of the various canal lines was no comfortable matter for westbound emigrants, as described below by [see] Ellen Bigelow, in a letter to a relative back home in Massachusetts:
[On the] "Genesee," Clinton Line, Capt. D.W. Botts. ... What they called the ladies` cabin we found to be a little, mean, dirty place, in size about six feet by ten, and into that ten and sometimes twelve persons were regularly wedged. The berths were straw mattresses thrown upon rails of which our poor bones complained most bitterly. The noise of passing through the locks with the jar occasioned by meeting other boats would have prevented us from sleeping had the straw and rails permitted it. We arose in the morning unrefreshed and heartily sick of canal boats. ... A rainstorm came on which added much to the horror of our situation, as it drove all the gentlemen into the cabin and covered the floor with mud and water and gave us no room to turn around. [55a]

  a sloop, built at Black Rock in 1810; under captain Walter Norton, and together with the sloop [see] Friends` Good-Will, she delivered goods to Chicago on July 5, 1812, some for the account of John Kinzie; on her way from Chicago to Detroit she was captured by the British at the harbor of Mackinaw. [48, 206b, 226] [719a]

Ernst, Anna  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1832. [342]

Erwin, Matthew  see Irwin, Matthew.

Escher, Jacob and Martin  also Esher; German-Protestant immigrant brothers who arrived in 1836 with their families and soon joined the German Evangelical Association. Jacob`s son, John J. (1823-1901), later became bishop of the Evangelical church, author of the Evangelical Church Catechism, and, in 1861, founder of North Central College in Naperville. [12]

  a bizarre spelling of the word Chicago, found only in the text of the memoires of Col. Arent Schuyler de Peyster, written in 1813 about events that took place 34 years earlier; attributable to de Peyster’s failing memory.

  schooner from Oswego, NY; first called at Chicago with passengers and merchandise on Nov. 14, 1835, under Captain Bassett; wrecked off Bass Island in 1848. [48]

Ester, Elizabeth  see Brookes, Henry.

estray book  kept by Richard J. Hamilton in 1833 and 1834 in his capacity as clerk of the common Cook County court, in which he listed data on all stray domestic animals accumulating within the estray pen; the book formed the basis for periodic public sales of unclaimed animals before an appointed appraiser and a justice of the peace; animals thus sold—or "taken up"—were listed, with the amount they brought, in the Chicago Democrat.

estray pen  also hog pound; a corral erected with county funds in March 1832, on the SW corner of the public square, meant to hold lost hogs and cattle until their owners could claim them; was built by Samuel Miller, who asked $20 for his effort but settled for $12; the estray pen was - Chicago`s 1st - public structure.

Eustis, Lt. Col. Abraham  in charge of artillery at Fort Dearborn throughout the 1832 cholera epidemic, then led the [see] Black Hawk War troops to the field of action near Galena, where General Scott and staff had preceded them to join other forces. [342a]

Eustis, William, M.D.  from Massachusetts; Continental army surgeon between December 1775 and December 1776; hospital physician and surgeon from October 1780 to the close of the Revolutionary War; named secretary of war on March 7, 1809, serving until Jan. 13, 1813 in Washington City; beginning Dec. 30, 1809, Matthew Irwin, government factor at Fort Dearborn, reported to Eustis regularly on the irregularities he observed concerning actions of the officers and others. This, in 1811, led to the replacement of Capt. John Whistler as commandant of the fort. Dr. Eustis died on Feb. 6, 1825. [109] [326]

Evans, John  on Sept. 4, 1830, purchased from the canal commissioners lot 3 of block 44 and lot 5 of block 33; by 1833, both lots were owned by Henry Brush. [12]

Everett, Henry  a soldier and musician at Fort Dearborn, visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 3, 1804 and Aug. 4, 1805, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

Evernden, Charlotte Elizabeth  see Fuller, David.

Everts, Hiram  also Evarts; from Granville, NY; placed two notices in the Chicago Democrat on Aug. 5 and 12, 1835, for " EDUCATION," informing "the inhabitants of Chicago, that he will open a HIGH SCHOOL for Young Gentlemen on the 10th ... should sufficient encouragement be offered." Terms of eleven weeks were to be available for ordinary [$5] and higher [$6] English branches and for Latin and Greek [$8] languages; testimonials were accessible at Dr. Temple`s house; died in Chicago on Sept. 24 at age 23, per notice in the Sept. 26 Chicago American.

Evileth, Lt. William Sanford  also Eveleth, Evelith; native of Virginia; graduated from West Point in 1813; a U.S. Department of Engineers officer who was appointed by the War Department to superintend the rebuilding of Fort Dearborn beginning in July of 1816; in October he embarked on the schooner Hercules to return East, but lost his life on the 4th when the ship was wrecked between the mouths of the two Calumet Rivers; his body was identified by the military buttons on his clothes. [544] [12]

Ewing, Charles W., William G. and George W.  sons of Col. Alexander and Charlotte (née Griffith) Ewing; W.G. was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; Charles W. (NY c.1796-) received $200 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September, William G. (MI 1793-) and G.W. received $5000, and his wife Harriet (née Bourie) Ewing received $500 at the 1833 Chicago Treaty with the Indians. [12, 288, 319] [71]

Ewing, William Lee Davidson  (1795-1846) of Vandalia; speaker of the House of Representatives of the Illinois General Assembly; on September 11, 1833 was appointed secretary to the board of commissioners of the Treaty of Chicago, by Commisioners Owen and Weatherford. He served as an interim governor of Illinois in 1834 for 15 days, succeeding Governor Reynolds and followed by Governor Duncan—was president of the Illinois Senate at the time; street name: Ewing Avenue. [12, 13, 319] [559]

Exchange Coffee House  later called the Illinois Exchange, and sometimes the New York Exchange; second hotel built by Mark Beaubien, erected in 1834 at the NW corner of Lake and Wells streets and initially run by Mr. and Mrs. John Murphy; subsequent managers or owners were A.A. Markle in 1836, Jason Gurley in 1838, Charles W. Cook in 1839 [then 182 Lake St.], and F.A. Munson in 1844. [136a] [41]

Exchange, the  colloquial term for both the Eagle Exchange Tavern and the Exchange Coffee House.


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