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Vail sawmill  opened in 1832 on Trail creek upstream of Michigan City; one of several mills that supplied lumber for the Chicago boom.

Valette, Susan  see Gary, Erastus.

Valparaiso moraine    terminal moraine at the southern end of the Wisconsin glacier that scooped out the bed of Lake Chicago, predecessor to Lake Michigan.

Van Austen`s tavern  existed in the mid 1830s, where the Old Chicago Trail crossed the Des Plaines River at Summit. [Van Austen may possibly have succeeded the {see} Laughton brothers at their tavern and trading house, as did Stephen J. Scott temporarily, when the brothers both died in 1834; eds.]

Van Buren, Lt. Abraham    born in New York; son of President Martin Van Buren, was stationed as second lieutenant at Fort Dearborn from Oct. 3, 1828, to March 1829 under Major Fowle; died on March 15, 1873.

Van der Bogart, Henry, M.D.  (1810-1835) an 1833 graduate of the medical college in Fairfield, NY; arrived in the spring of 1834 and soon afterward taught at the English and Classical School for Boys, replacing Granville T. Sproat as principal and by the year`s end, was succeeded by Thomas Wright; became engaged to Sally Warren, a teacher who worked under him, but he died of typhoid on Apr. 8, 1835 [Chicago American notice, June 13] at the Warren home [Warrenville]; Sally married Abel E. Carpenter in 1836. Transcripts of his letters (1833-34) concerning school experiences are preserved at the Chicago History Museum. [12]

Van Eaton, David  voted in the elections on Aug. 2 and Nov. 25, 1830; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [12]

Van Horne, Cornelius Covenhaven  (Apr. 13, 1794-July 7, 1854) also Van Horn; third son of Abraham and Anna (née Covenhaven) Van Horne; shortly after his birth in Hunterdon County, NJ, the family removed to Montgomery County, NY; married Elizabeth Veeder (NY c.1798-1838 IL) on Oct. 13, 1813; came from New York with his family in the spring of 1832, settling in Hickory Creek, Will County, where the timber extended into the prairie – "Van Horne`s Point"; became a private that year in Capt. J.S.C. Hogan`s Cook County volunteer company within Maj. David Bailey`s battalion stationed at Fort Dearborn between May 24 and June 18; taught the first school there that winter; was postmaster of the Juliet [Joliet] post office between July 1834 and April 1835, providing lists of remaining letters which were published in the Chicago Democrat; just prior to the land sale in May he was in town advertising in the Chicago Democrat and selling "[a] number of valuable improved farms, situate along the line of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, some of the best locations in the country"; was a Justice of the Peace at the incorporation of Joliet as a city and was chosen its first mayor. The couple had two surviving children: Cornelius Putnam (1824-) and Andrew Jackson (Aug, 5, 1832-). In 1842 he married Mary E. Richards; the couple had five children: William C. (1843-), Augustus (1844-), Elizabeth (1846-), Theodore C. (1849-) and Mary (1852-). Van Horne died of cholera in 1854; son Cornelius Putnam died at Sutters Mill, CA, in 1856. [134, 734] [714]

Van Horne, James  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on May 2, 1810; listed as sick on a muster roll from Nov. 30 to Dec. 10, 1810; taken prisoner at the massacre of 1812 and later ransomed from the Indians. [226, 708] [689]

Van Horne, John  also van Horn; German immigrant to Chicago in 1830; according to Mayor Wentworth, Van Horne was the first German settler to vote in Chicago in the Peoria County election on July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830. Van Horne, whose name suggests Dutch rather than German ancestry, competes with Johann Wellmacher for distinction of having been - Chicago`s 1st - German immigrant; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [12, 319] [342]

Van Sickle, Martin  worked one month for $10 for William H. Wallace at Hardscrabble early in 1826; voted in the election on Aug. 7, 1826 (see elections); lived near Aurora with his daughter Almira, for whom [see] Willis Scott acquired a wedding license at Peoria. [369a]

Van Voorhis, Isaac, M.D.  (1790-1812) member of an old Dutch family of Fishkill, NY; graduated in 1808 from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City, a classmate of Dr. John Cooper; at age 20 he became a military physician (surgeon`s mate, appointed March 1, 1811) at Fort Dearborn under Captain Heald; arrived at the fort in the summer of 1811, replacing Dr. Cooper, who had resigned his position in the spring; was killed in action at the massacre of 1812; his sensitivity and visionary quality become apparent in the following portion from a letter sent home from the lonely fort:
In my solitary walks I contemplate what a great and powerful republic will yet arise in this new world. Here, I say, will be the seat of millions yet unborn; here the asylum of oppressed millions yet to come. How composedly would I die could I be resuscitated at that bright era of American greatness—an era which I hope will announce the tidings of death to fell superstition and dread tyranny. [12] [226]

Van Vrankin, Richard  born at Schenectady, NY; enlisted in the army for three years at age 23 on January 6, 1835, at Utica, NY; as listed in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American he was one of 15 deserters from the Fort Dearborn Garrison between January 1 and July 28, prior to the withdrawal of all troops on December 29 that year. He deserted on July 26 and a reward of $450 was offered for his apprehension. (Chicago Genealogy Club, v. 2, no. 1, September 1969)

Van Zandt, W.  was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Vandalia  became capital of the State of Illinois in December 1820, replacing Kaskaskia, and remained capital until 1840, yielding the title to Springfield; for details, see jurisdiction.

Vanderberg, M.  was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Vanderwerker, Adam  was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Vandette, Angelique  see Moliere, Pierre.

Vandine, John  was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Varnum, Jacob Butler  (1788-1874) from an influential Massachusetts family, appointed U.S. factor at the new Fort Dearborn in 1816 by Captain Bradley, succeeding Matthew Irwin after an interval of four years without a factor. Varnum had recently married Mary Ann (née Aiken, of Detroit) at Mackinac and brought his bride with him to the fort; arriving on the Tiger on Sept. 13, 1816, the couple was assigned an unused log cabin outside the stockade as both living quarters and factory store; on June 27, 1817, his wife died during childbirth; she was buried, holding the stillborn infant in her arms, a few feet from the cabin [their remains later moved to the city cemetery]; Jacob married 19-year-old Catherine Dodemead of Detroit on Aug. 8, 1819, and brought her back to the fort, where the soldiers had meanwhile built a more adequate factory; there the couple lived until 1822, together with Catherine`s sister Mary and two servants; in 1821 attended the Indian Treaty of Chicago; later removed to Washington City, where he lived until his death. [12, 560] [689]

Varnum, Joseph Bradley, Jr.  (1785-1867) older brother of Jacob B., who entered government service with the help of his influential father, arrived at Fort Dearborn on Aug. 20, 1807, to serve as U.S. factor until 1808 [though observed at the fort by {see} William Johnson late June, 1809], then was transferred to Mackinac; he escaped capture by the British in 1812, entered the fur trade until 1817, then moved to New York and became a merchant. Also see United States Factory System.

Vasseur, Noel   see Le Vasseur, Noel.

Vaughan, Daniel W.  German immigrant in 1831; married Angeline Herbert on July 9, 1831; made history as defendant in - Chicago`s 1st - local divorce proceedings [see notice in Chicago Democrat of May 16, 1834; also see entry on divorces], involving Angeline as petitioner, Daniel as respondent; the outcome is not known; see divorces. Extant evidence suggests that Angeline may have married [see] Michael Diversey in 1836. [In 1827 a Chicago couple had divorced in Peoria, then the county seat; eds.] [12] [342]

Vaughn, Dill and James  early members of the Catholic community, in April 1833 their names were on the petition by citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among "500 Chicagoans" on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319]

Vedder, Elizabeth  see Van Horne, Cornelius C.

vegetation  by the year 1832, approximately half of Illinois still consisted of [see] prairie. In the same year [see] H.S. Tanner listed the prevalent woody plants as follows: "The kinds of timber most abundant are cotton-wood, sycamore, hickory, ash, sugar-maple, beech; black, white, red, post, and jack oak; black and white walnut, blue and white ash, sweet and sour or black gum, red and water elm, black and honey locust, linden, buck-eye, pecan, hackberry, catalpa, mulberry, box elder, wild cherry, willow, dogwood, sassafras, persimmon, with smaller underwood of sumac, plum, crab apple, grape vines, pawpaw, hazel, &c.; &c.; The cotton-wood and sycamore grow along the streams. In the southern end, on the streams which flow into the Ohio and Mississippi toward their junction, the cypress grows." Also see barrens. [311] [313]

vermillion  red ocher or hematite, a mineral that occurred in large quantities along the banks of Illinois` Vermillion River. The local Indians called it as well as the river aramooni, ground up the substance, making a paste to be used as red paint, occasionally on their bodies. The French recognised it as the mineral they knew as vermillion, and thus named the river Vermillion River. [456b]

Vermillion Rangers  also Vermillion County Battalion; in July 1827 Gurdon S. Hubbard, then of Danville (on the Big Vermillion River), was in the Kinzie house at Chicago when Governor Cass of the Territory of Michigan made a surprise visit to warn of impending danger from the restive Winnebago. Hubbard sped to Danville in record time and led 100 militia volunteers from the Vermillion County Battalion—the Vermillion Rangers—on horseback to Chicago to help safeguard the small settlement, unprotected because Fort Dearborn had not been garrisoned since 1823; Achilles Morgan was chosen by the volunteers as captain, and Hezekiah Cunningham, serving as a private, later gave an account of the experience; additional names of participating militia members may be found in that report. Another contemporary was Henry W. Blodgett and his description of Hubbard`s appearance at that time follows.
The picture of him, as he led his Vermillion County rangers up before the old fort, will ever remain in my memory. I think without exception, he was the nearest to my ideal of a frontier soldier, of anyone I have ever seen. Splendid in physique, six feet and something more in height, he rode a splendid horse, and dressed in just enough of the frontier costume to make his figure a picturesque one. He wore buckskin leggins, fringed with red and blue and a jaunty sort of hunting-cap. In a red sash about his waist was stuck, on one side, a silver-handled hunting-knife, on the other, a richly mounted tomahawk. His saddle and horse accoutrements were elegant, I might say fantastic, and altogether he made a figure ever to be remembered. [12]

Versailles, France  France having taken formal possession of the North American Northwest, including Chicago, in 1671, Versailles became the ultimate jurisdictional capital for Chicago in that year, and remained so until 1763. For details, see jurisdiction.

Vespucci, Amerigo  born March 9, 1451, in Italy, accompanied the Spanish conquistador Alonzo de Ojeda on a 1499 expedition to the New World. Vespucci`s description of the coast of Brazil and his recognition of a continent in his Quatuor Americi Navigationes in 1504 led the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller to suggest naming South America after him; the name was later adapted for North America; see Maps, 1507, Martin Waldseemüller. [446]

Vial, Joseph  (-Nov. 18, 1853) born in Rhode Island, son of Sylvester Vial; came in the fall of 1833 from Elmira, NY, and was listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November; acquired 270 acres the following spring at Flagg Creek [Lyons Township] and built a 16-foot-square cabin; his family, consisting of his wife Louisa [née Smith, RI -Sept. 8, 1856], sons [see] Samuel, [see] Robert and Nathaniel (-June 18, 1858), and daughter Martha, arrived in late July 1834 on the steamship Uncle Sam; he farmed with his sons Robert and Nathaniel and built a log cabin hostelry on Plainfield Road, that also served as a store and a post office, and was the place where the first stages stopped; it was near Elijah Wentworth, Jr.`s, tavern; in the book La Grange Centennial History 1879-1979 he is quoted as saying, "The Indians were never troublesome after we came. I remember old Shabbona, head chief of the Pottawatomie. He was about the noblest specimen I ever saw. It was through his [Shabbona`s] efforts that his tribe remained quiet during the Black Hawk War (1832)"; Joseph notified settlers in the June 24, 1835 Chicago Democrat, then hosted Cook County`s first Democratic convention at Flagg Creek on July 4, 1835, at which occasion Peter Pruyne was nominated for state senator. On Oct. 1, 1839, Joseph additionally acquired "the East half of the South East-quarter of Section eight in Township thirty eight North, of Range twelve East, in the District of Lands subject to sale at Chicago, Illinois, containing eighty acres." In the 1843 Chicago Directory Joseph Vial of Cook is listed as one of seven vice-presidents of the Union Agricultural Society, available at the Office of Prairie Farmer, 112 Lake Street. Early Vial family diaries, kept between 1832 and 1848, are within the Flagg Creek Historical Society collection at the [see] Robert Vial House.
The image shows the Vial family tombstone in Lyonsville Cemetery at the corner of Wolf and Joliet roads in Indian Head Park. [Photograph by Alan Gornik, 2010] [259a, 278, 280a, 337b, 711a] [13]

Vial, Robert  (Apr. 9, 1824-Nov. 8, 1921) born in Chester, NY, son of Joseph and Louisa (née Smith) Vial; arrived in late July 1834 with his family on the steamship Uncle Sam and farmed the homestead with his father and brother Samuel; married Mary Roe Ketchum (Newburgh, NY, Nov. 18, 1834-Sept. 27, 1909) at Lyonsville, IL, on May 26, 1856; the couple had seven children, most of whom died young except Robert Clark (July 9, 1872-Dec. 6, 1957). The house he built in c.1856, extant now at 7425 Wolf Road in Burr Ridge, has been renovated under the direction of the Flagg Creek Historical Society and is an information resource center for the Illinois & Michigan Canal Commission. [Photograph of the Robert Vial House taken by Alan Gornik, 2010] [259a, 278, 280a, 351, 337b, 711a] [13]

Vial, Samuel  (July 25, 1819-Oct. 17, 1911) born in Chester, NY, son of [see] Joseph and Louisa (née Smith) Vial; arrived in late July 1834 with his family on the steamship Uncle Sam and farmed the homestead with his father and brother Robert; listed in the 1843 and 1844 City Directories as: "laborer, [see] Sylvester Marsh [98 Lake st. packing house N Water st]." On Nov. 19, 1846 he married Margaret McNaughten (Scotland, -May 18, 1856); the couple had four children: Jane, George McNaughten (Feb. 15, 1850-Mar. 8, 1915), Joseph McNaughten (Apr. 10, 1852-Dec. 23, 1941, Lyonsville, IL) and Louisa. Following his wife`s death in 1856, he married Mrs. Gertrude North later that year. In 1874 Samuel built a house on land at the northwest corner of La Grange Road and 47th Street; in 1984 the home was purchased by the La Grange Area Historical Society for use as a community museum and research center. [13, 259a, 280a] [51a]

Viaux, Charles  (-1876) also Vieau; son of [see] Jacques Vieau, older brother of Andrew J.; married to one of Jean Baptiste Mirandeau`s daughters; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833; he died in Kansas. [691]

vicar-general of Illinois  an official representative of the Roman Catholic bishop. During the time period under consideration the bishops were located in Quebec. The first vicar-general was [see] Father Sebastian Louis Meurin, appointed in 1767, followed in office by Father Pierre Gibault [seen on the accompanying picture], appointed in 1769 and serving until 1791. Both the appointments were made by Bishop Olivier Briand. With the end of French dominance in Illinois country, the position of vicar-general was no longer filled. [219a]

  armed British schooner patrolling Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built at Navy Island in 1763. [48]

Vieau, Andrew J.  (Jan. 1, 1818-) also Andre Vieux; born at Green Baye, Wisconsin Territory; son of [see] Jacques Vieau, Sr., older brother of Nicholas and Pierre (Peter); one-quarter Indian. As Andre Vieux he received $100 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; came to Chicago in 1835 and worked as supervisor of several clerks in Madore Beaubien`s store, returning the next year to Milwaukee; served as bookkeeper for [see] Laurent Solomon Juneau, and soon bought him out. He married [see] Rebecca R. Lawe of Green Bay. [12, 85a, Wisconsin Historical Collections 11 {1888} 223-224] [691]

Vieau, Angelique  wife of Pierre [Peter] Juneau.

Vieau, Jacques, Sr.  (1762-) also Vieux; Jacques and his brother Nicolas were voyageurs in the La Pointe region on Lake Superior, Jacques there as late as 1782 and his brother then at Green Baye; by 1794 he was a clerk at Green Baye, but was sent from Michilimackinac the following July by the Northwest Fur Co. to establish posts along the west coast of Lake Michigan, becoming the first permanent white settler (1795) and trader at Milwaukee; his wife was Angeline, daughter of the La Baye trader Joseph Le Roi and an Indian woman. Jacques was the local agent of the American Fur Co. until 1819 when Solomon Juneau took over; he then reopened his old post on the Menomonee River which was equipped by [see] Michael Dousman of Chicago; he also had posts in Kewaunee, Sheboygan, and Manitowoc, and his trade with Indians reached as far south as Chicago. In September 1833 he attended the Indian Treaty at Chicago, there to trade goods and to present some claims to the government; at this occasion, the various members of the extended Vieau family received the following compensations: $200 jointly for Angelique and Amable, $200 jointly for Andre and Nicolas, $200 jointly for Pierre and Maria, $100 each for Jacques [Jr.], Louis, Josette, Paul, Joseph and Susanne, and $2000 for himself. [12, 85a, Wisconsin Historical Collections 15 {1900} 458-460] [691]
In 1888 [see] Andrew J. Vieau shared memories of his father`s life with Thompson M. Maxwell: "My father remained at his post during the winter of 1795-96; and, indeed, every winter thereafter for two or three years. Several members of our family were born there, — Joseph, Louis, Amable, Charles, Nicholas, and Peter. Each spring, after packing up the winter’s peltries and buying all the maple sugar obtainable from the Indians, father would start out with his family and goods on his return to Mackinaw, after leaving a clerk in charge of the post, to superintend the planting of potatoes and corn and the purchase of what were called “summer” furs. These were the “red skin,” or summer skin, of the deer; this was the only summer fur that was good for anything, for all other animals shed their hair during that season. Upon his return down the lake, father would stop at his various jack-knife posts and collect their furs and maple sugar, and often relieve the men stationed there, by substituting others for them. This trip to Mackinaw would, with fair weather, take about a month. He would set out on his return, in August, distributing goods to the lake-shore posts, and stay at Milwaukee until May again.
“After disposing of his interests to Juneau, in 1819, my father was equipped by Michael Dousman, of Chicago, and for several years traded at his old post on the Menomonee river, near the bluff. He was an active man, very prompt and precise in his business dealings and sociable in his manner, so that he commanded much influence with the Pottawatomis. In the winter of 1832-33, the small-pox scourge ran through the Indian population of the state. Father and his crew were busy throughout the winter in burying the natives, who died off like sheep .... none of the Indians who lived over were capable of paying their debts to the traders. This winter ruined my father almost completely; and in 1836, aged 74 years, he removed to his homestead in Green Bay, where his father-in-law, Joseph le Roy, still lived." [Wisconsin Historical Collections 11 {1888} 223-224] [691]

Vieau, Josette  also Vieux; see Juneau, Laurent S.

Vierling, Philip E.  a contemporary Chicago historian who has long been sharing evidence of the earliest human occupation within Illinois Country, noting in detail the geology and flora encountered by Indians and later traders as they explored the wilderness. Vierling has traced the hiking and canoe trails which determined patterns of livelihood and settlement through maps, drawings and text. Since 1973 he has self-published the work as Illinois Country Outdoor Guides and has included studies of grasslands, Starved Rock, and the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Also self-publishing the journal “Chicago Portage Ledger” three times a year since 2000 with nonprofit distribution, he continues to compound available information about Chicago`s early history and the fur trade, much of which has been used to enrich this web site. [692a–i] [692]

Viger, Jacques  local Quebec historian and public official who in 1844, discovered Father Marquette`s "holograph" [handwritten or hand-drawn] map and report of his 1673 expedition with Jolliet. Jolliet`s map and report were lost in a 1674 catastrophe before they could be delivered to the authorities. [306] [693]

Ville, Père Jean Marie de  (c.1672-June 6, 1720) born in France and became a Jesuit novice there, pursuing studies at Bourges, La Flèche, and Paris; served as an instructor five years at Rheims; came to Canada in c.1706 and first served among the Abenaki 40 leagues from Quebec; in 1707 was sent to the Illinois mission where he remained and became a superior. Early in 1719 he journeyed to La Mobile to make arrangements for his mission and to request restrictions from Governor de Bienville on French traders in Illinois; throughout the following six months he ministered to the French and accompanied troops to Pensacola; ill in the autumn he retreated to Natchez and there died. [665]

Vincennes Trace  see Hubbard’s Trail; also see Vincennes Trace in monument section. [692f]

Vincennes, IN  town in southern Indiana on the Wabash River, founded under the Louisiana governor Perrier as a military post in 1727 (most probable date) by the French explorer François Margane (Morgan) de la Valtrie, sieur de Vincennes, and named after its founder; the fort was also called Poste du Ouabache and served to counter the English influence with the Indians and to secure French control of the fur trade; later occupied first by the British, then by U.S. troops under Gen. George Rogers Clark [see image of commemorative postage stamp]; in 1800 became the capital for the Indiana Territory, which included Chicago. For details, see jurisdiction. Preserved records of a Jesuit parish in Vincennes go back to 1749, initially written by [see] Father Sebastian Louis Meurin, but parish activity is known to have begun even earlier. In 1767 Father Meurin was appointed vicar-general for the Illinois country by Bishop Briand of Quebec, and was followed in this position in 1769 by [see] Father Pierre Gibault, who held it until 1791. Street names: Vincennes Avenue; see Vincennes Trail. [122] [219a]

Vincent, Aiken  also Akin; arrived in 1835; a notice in the Chicago Democrat of Dec. 14, 1842, announced his marriage to Sarah Ann Clark on Dec. 6; in 1885 lived at 96 Artesian Ave. [If Aiken Vincent`s arrival date, as given by Adolphus Hubbard, is in error—as his spelling of Vincent`s first name appears to be—he may be identical with the Englishman Mr. Vincent of the following entry; eds.] [351]

Vincent, Mr.  an English bachelor who in 1833 occupied a new frame house at Vincent`s Prairie, five miles N of the Chicago River; the Boyer family stayed there initially and enjoyed his fine library, as Dr. Boyer later related. [728]

Virginia fence    a zigzag fence of wooden rails crossing at their ends.

Virginia, its claim to Illinois land (a)  the royal charters by which the King of England established colonies in North America generally granted land from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast [see associated 1755 map by J. Hinton of London, showing the colonies extending westward beyond the Mississippi]. The upper and lower boundaries were stated as parallels of North latitude. These coast to coast grants were effectively cut off at the Mississippi River by the Treaty of Paris, 1763, which ended the French and Indian War. When the American Revolution burdened the various colonies and the United States government with enormous unpaid costs, the country’s leaders decided that the lands at the Western frontier belonged to the United States and be sold to the public to raise the money needed to retire these debts. The Journals of the Continental Congress show the process by which the eastern states, Virginia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and the Carolinas gradually ceded their western claims to the new Federal government. Virginia took the lead and the others followed suit during the period of 1780-1800. In essence, Virginia’s claim had a northern boundary at the 41st parallel, Connecticut`s was between 41 degrees and 42 degrees 2 minutes, and Massachusetts north of that line, which was the resurveyed western portion of the Connecticut-Massachusetts line. Virginia insisted on these boundaries for Connecticut`s claim. The 41st parallel crosses Illinois just south of Kankakee, strikes the Illinois River at Lacon, well north of Peoria, and ends at the Mississippi near Quincy. Connecticut’s line is approximately Oakton Boulevard, which means that the present City of Chicago lies entirely within Connecticut’s claim. [649]

Virginia, its claim to Illinois land (b)  there is a phrase in the 1609 and 1612 royal charters of Virginia which makes a general reference to its lands “west and northwest” of the coastal area. Some interpreters in recent years have imagined that this vague phrase describes a boundary other than a parallel of latitude, and have produced novel maps showing a line that runs at a compass heading of 315 degrees, which is of course northwest. But Virginia never made a claim to lands so bounded. This fictional line would have included in Virginia most of the western lands granted by the same king, James I, in 1620 to New England. Surely the King of England did not intend to cheat the investors in New England by selling them lands already “owned” by Virginia. The confusion was made worse by the Virginia law of 1778 incorporating its County of Illinois, which failed to give the exact boundaries of lands which had been invaded by George Rogers Clark to oust the modest British presence in southern Illinois and Indiana. In present terms, a line proceeding due northwest from the Atlantic coast at the crossing of the 41st parallel would start at about Greenwich, Connecticut, and Port Cester, New York, cut across the eastern half of Lake Ontario and leave the rest of the Great Lakes in Virginia. And since the unfortunate phrase “west and northwest” does not specify how far this imaginary line would go, it would return to its point of origin, thus giving Virginia half of the world.
The true state of these western boundaries is shown in the [see] map of 1766 prepared for General Thomas Gage, the British commander of all forces in North America, here reproduced in the margin. It is preserved in his papers at the Clements Library of the University of Michigan. Our reproduction is from the image printed in the 1987 catalog of an exhibit commemorating the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 at the Newberry Library in Chicago, where the original map was prominently displayed. Also see the entry “Illinois, County of Virginia.” [649]

voting lists  such lists of early settlers constitute valuable historical resources, although the names are often misspelled.

  in Nouvelle France or Canada, a voyageur was a person who transported goods and men by rivers and lakes to trading posts for the fur companies, or any woodsmen or boatsmen of the early period; they represented the third and lowest stratum in the hierarchy of fur trading of the Northwest, and were usually young, hardy French-Canadian peasants, or métis, who preferred the free life of the forests and waterways over work in the fields; their obligatory signed contracts with the [see] bourgeois bound them to obey the latter in all things; their duties were to propel the canoe, portage the craft and its cargo, provide for the comfort for the bourgeois, pitch the tent, prepare his meals, and many other associated chores; also see commis, coureurs des bois, and engagé. [406, 664a]
Mrs. Kinzie`s description of voyageurs, in Wau-Bun, follows:
...They were unlike any other class of men. Like the poet, they seemed born to their vocation. Sturdy, enduring, ingenious and light-hearted, they possessed a spirit capable of adjusting itself to any emergency. No difficulties baffled, no hardship discouraged them; while their affectionate nature led them to form attachments of the warmest character to their `bourgeois` or master, as well as to the native inhabitants among whom their engagements carried them.

Vulpes vulpes  see fox.


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